Posted on Mar 12, 2022 608
Until recently, medicine knew only 8 types of blood, each of which has its own subtypes. However, later it turned out that there was another blood type, and it was subsequently dubbed the golden blood group. All because the owner of such blood is very difficult to find - there are only 43 people in the world with this type of blood.
This blood is not classified according to the usual classification system. All because its rhesus value is neutral. However, from the point of view of science and medicine, this blood is of great value.
A blessing or a curse?
Although this type of blood seriously interests scientists, for the owners themselves it poses some danger. After all, there are few potential donors in the world who can help this person in case of serious injury. All because only their type of blood would be suitable for such recipients.
Such blood does not contain the antigens present in other blood groups. For the first time the “golden” blood was talked about in 1961, when it was discovered in a native Australian.
Previously doctors were sure that no one could survive with this type of blood. It was assumed that in the absence of Rh agents, the embryo could not exist even in the womb, much less develop into an adult. However, at the moment only 43 people with “golden” blood in their veins are known to science.
This type of blood is passed on to the offspring through genes. However, it is difficult to inherit. In most cases, the child receives the group of the parent who had a normal blood type.
In order to differentiate human blood types, the ABO system was invented. There may be about 342 antigens on the surface of each red blood cell. These are substances responsible for the production of antibody proteins.
Depending on the number of antigens, the blood is assigned to one group or another. Of the 342 possible antigens, most people in the world have only about 160. With the most common antigens A and B, the blood is assigned to group 2 or 3, respectively.
The absence of these antigens indicates that a person has blood type. If both antigens are found in the blood, it is blood Group 4.
Incorrect blood transfusions can be fatal. For example, blood type three does not match blood type two because they have different antigens. If antigens do not match, the body triggers an immune response and attacks such blood as a foreign organism.
In addition, blood can be Rh positive and negative. This is showed by the presence or absence of C, D, c, E, e antigens in it. Most people have Rh-positive blood.
If the recipient’s blood is Rh positive, he should never be transfused with negative blood. This too will lead to immune response and death of the patient.
With “golden” blood, it is a little different. Not a single antigen can be detected on the surface of the erythrocytes.
This allows this blood to be transfused to people of all rhesus and blood types. It is usually used in exceptional cases when the recipient has a rare blood type.
Neutral blood group is prone to the formation of stomatocytes - these are red blood cells of concave shape, due to which hemolytic anemia develops. The excessive fragility of red blood cells is to blame.
For medicine, this blood is of great value. It is believed that this particular group is the oldest. Scientists are looking for ways to zero in on regular blood in order to save as many lives as possible through transfusions.