What the human body is made of

Posted on Apr 24, 2022      120

Every educated person should know what the human body is made of. At least. After all, all interesting facts about the human body have their own appeal, because this is information about us.

We have already told interesting facts about the human structure, but now we will talk more about the biochemical composition of our body.

It should be understood that the human body is extremely complex. Although the skin, muscles, skeletal bones and hair differ completely from each other, they are all made up of cells.

What is a cell?

Let’s first understand the very meaning of the term.

A cell is an elementary particle in a living organism. But don’t let this definition mislead you: the structure of a cell is far from simple.

The protective shell of a cell is called a membrane. The cytoplasm contains organelles that perform various vital functions:

  • Mitochondria provide the cell with energy.
  • Protein synthesis takes place in ribosomes.
  • Endoplasmic network transports substances.

The center or “brain” of the cell, from which all functional control occurs, is the nucleus.

How many cells are there in a human body?

There are a lot of cells in the adult human body. At different stages of the development of science, this figure differed. Naturally, it is impossible to give this figure with absolute accuracy.

One thing is known for sure: there are about 100 trillion cells in our body. And it is very much.

What does the body comprise

The composition of the body is studied accurately:

  • 60% water.
  • 19% proteins
  • 15% fats and fat-like substances
  • 5% minerals
  • 1% carbohydrates

The elements of the human body

The human body comprises cells of different shapes and sizes. The shape and size of a cell depends on what functions it performs in the body.

For example, myocytes, muscle cells, ensure our movement, so they “know” how to change their length. When we are relaxed, they are thin and long, but when we tense our muscles, they become shorter and thicker.

Skin cells resemble tightly packed bricks, and red blood cells - red blood cells - are shaped like flat discs. In this context, you may be interested to know what hemoglobin is.

Human tissues

Cells of the same structure and function form tissues. There are four types of tissue in our body.

Epithelial tissue

Epithelial tissue (covering) forms the skin and mucous membranes of internal organs.

Its primary function is to protect the body organs from external influences and actively take part in the metabolic process.

Cells of epithelial tissue in the intestine, for example, absorb nutrients.

Connective tissue

Connective tissue makes up blood, lymph, bones and fat. Some of these cells carry nutrients throughout the body, others (osteocytes) support the body and others form the basis of the human defense system.

Muscle tissue

The name muscle tissue speaks for itself. The word “muscle” comes from the Latin “musculis”, which comes from the word “mus”, meaning mouse.

Indeed, when we contract, it is as if our muscles are running under the skin. Long cells (up to 12 cm) contain the thinnest threads capable of contracting - these are myofibrils and myofilaments.

Nerve tissue

Nerve tissue comprises very special cells called neurons.

They have a body, where the nucleus is located, and branches (axons and dendrites). The axon, a long branch, can be up to 1.5 meters long.

It carries a weak electrical discharge from cell to cell. It is called a nerve impulse.

Interesting fact

Did you know that the smallest cell in the human body is a red blood cell? Its diameter is about 7 micrometers (1 micrometer is 0.0001 centimeter).

And the largest cell is an egg cell. Its diameter is about 0.1 mm. It can be seen even with the naked eye.

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